subordinate clause

The infinitive, introduced by ἐφ᾽ ᾧ or ἐφ᾽ ᾧτε, signals a restrictive condition, and sometimes also a restrictive goal or result, as a satellite.

The future indicative, introduced by ἐφ᾽ ᾧ or ἐφ᾽ ᾧτε, signals a restrictive condition (sometimes with a nuance of goal) as a satellite.

A conditional clause may lack a predicate, specifically in the following two cases:

  1. firstly, the predicate of the conditional clause can be omitted if it is the same as that of the main clause (= ellipsis);

  2. secondly, the word group εἰ μή (also εἰ, εἰ μὴ εἰ or μὴ εἰ) can precede a substantive or participle as a particle to introduce an concise (usually negated) condition.

A subordinate clause, introduced by εἰ as well as by καίπερ or εἴπερ, sometimes has causative force as a satellite. However, this is mainly an issue of interpretation and translation. The meaning of these constructions has evolved from ‘if/although’ through ‘if/although it is true that…’ to ‘because’.

A subordinate clause, introduced by a relative word, signals a modifier. The use of moods and tenses corresponds to that of the temporal and conditional subordinate clause.

A subordinate clause in the indicative future, introduced by εἰ, signals a one-off plausible condition as a satellite.

A relative clause, introduced by a relative pronoun, signals a modifier. The use of moods and tenses corresponds to that of the main clause.

A subordinate clause, introduced by εἰ καί or καὶ εἰ (negated οὐδ’/μηδ’ εἰ or οὐδ’/μηδ’ ἐάν), signals a concession as a satellite. The use of the moods and tenses in the main and subordinate clauses is identical to that of conditional clauses.

An autonomous subordinate clause, introduced by a relative word, usually signals a satellite, an argument or a predicate NP (as does a noun). The use of moods and tenses corresponds to that of the temporal and the conditional subordinate clause.

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