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Dative: object with compound verbs

Syntactical Level

τῷ δυστυχοῦντι μὴ ἐπιγέλα

‘Do not mock him whom misfortune strikes.’ (Χείλων )

The dative signals an object with a number of compound verbs (with ἐν-, ἐπι-, συν- etc.).

Lexical usage

The semantic role of the object depends on the meaning of the prefix of the compound verb in question. Common prefixes include ἐν- (place), ἐπι- (malefactive) and συν- (instrument). Less frequent are παρα-, περι-, προσ- and ὑπο-.
In these compound verbs the preposition usually has an abstract meaning. If a concrete meaning is expressed a construction with a prepositional phrase is preferred (e.g. εἰς τὰς τριήρεις ἐμβήσονται (Lys. 2.32) ‘They will go aboard the triremes’).

Example Sentences: 

θεὸς δ’ ἁμαρτάνουσιν οὐ παρίσταται

God does not help sinners. ֍

ἥδιστος γάρ τοι θάνατος

συνθνῄσκειν θνῄσκουσι φίλοις,

εἰ δαίμων τάδε κραίνοι