ἔχω + aorist participle: periphrastic resultative aspect

A periphrasis with ἔχω and an aorist (or sometimes perfect) participle indicates a resultative aspect.

Syntactic behaviour

The participle is usually active.
The choice for a periphrasis emphasises a lasting result.

Historical background

This periphrasis becomes an integral part of the verbal system from the fifth century B.C.E. Before that it sporadically occurred as the transitive counterpart of the (originally intransitive) perfect.

Other information

In vernacular Latin and in the Romance languages there exists a comparable periphrasis in the form: habere + perf. part. This is the French passé composé and the Italian passato prossimo, which replaced the descendants of the Latin perfect in a number of Romance languages; According to some researchers, including Bridget Drinka, habere + perf. part. is derived from the Greek construction with ἔχω.

Example Sentences: