All diathetical forms: (unexpressed) causativity

The active or medial (or mediopassive) and sometimes also the passive form has causative force when the subject, usually a powerful figure, does not personally carry out the deed. The causative interpretation must appear from the context.

Lexical usage

A number of common verbs are ἀνακηρΰττω 'to have proclaimed', ἀποκτείνω 'to have executed', θάπτω 'to have buried', οἰκοδομέω 'to have built', παιδεύω 'to have educated'.

Translation tips

Use an auxiliary verb like 'to have'. This rule is mainly an issue of translation and depends on our interpretation as readers.

Example Sentences: 


τοῦ δὲ Βοσπόρου ὁ χῶρος τὸν ἔζευξε βασιλεὺς Δαρεῖος … μέσον ἐστὶ Βυζαντίου τε καὶ τοῦ ἐπὶ στόματι ἱροῦ

The part of the Bosporus that king Darius joined by bridges is situated halfway between Byzantium and the sanctuary at the mouth of the river.