Relative clause - syntax: non-restrictive relative clause


μόνος δ’ Ὀδυσσεύς, ὅσπερ οὐχ ἑκὼν ἔπλει, | ζευχθεὶς ἕτοιμος ἦν ἐμοὶ σειραφόρος

Only Odysseus, he who sailed unwillingly, was prepared to carry the yoke with me.

A relative clause, introduced by a relative pronoun, signals a modifier. The use of moods and tenses corresponds to that of the main clause.

Translation tips

In the translation of non-restrictive relative clauses the adverbial by the way can normally be used. Another way of distinguishing non-restrictive relative clauses is by substituting καί + demonstrative pronoun for the relative pronoun; this is not possible if the relative clause is restrictive.

Syntactic behaviour

These subordinate clauses are both syntactically and semantically omissable.
All the tenses and moods of the main clause (both epistemic and deontic modalities) can occur. In practice the epistemic indicative is the most common mood by far.

Example Sentences: 

καὶ δὴ καὶ νῦν, ὦ Μένων, εἰς καλὸν ἡμῖν Ἄνυτος ὅδε παρεκαθέζετο, ᾧ μεταδῶμεν τῆς ζητήσεως

Nu, op dit moment, Menon, zit Anytos hier zeer opportuun naast ons – laten we hem een rol geven in onze zoektocht.

ἥξετε ἐπὶ τοὺς ποταμούς, πρῶτον μὲν τὸν Θερμώδοντα, ... ὃν χαλεπὸν οἶμαι διαβαίνειν, ... τρίτον δὲ Ἅλυν, ... ὃν οὐκ ἂν δύναισθε ἄνευ πλοίων διαβῆναι

Jullie zullen de rivieren bereiken, ten eerste de Thermodon, die volgens mij moeilijk over te steken is... ten derde de Halys, die jullie zonder schepen niet zouden kunnen oversteken.

ἀρχαῖος μὲν οὖν καὶ Φωκαεῦσι τοῖς ἐν Ἰωνίᾳ ναός ἐστιν Ἀθηνᾶς, ὃν Ἅρπαγός ποτε ὁ Μῆδος ἐνέπρησεν

So the Phocaeans in Ionia have an old temple of Athena, which the Median Harpagus once put on fire.