Relative clause - syntax: restrictive relative clause

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A subordinate clause, introduced by a relative word, signals a modifier. The use of moods and tenses corresponds to that of the temporal and conditional subordinate clause.

Translation tips

In restrictive relative clauses in English there is no comma between the antecedent and the relative.

Syntactic behaviour (with oblique optative)

These subordinate clauses are syntactically but not semantically omissable.
The moods and tenses correspond to those of the contextual subordinate phrase:

  • indicative = neutral or established;
  • subjunctive with ἄν (in poetry without ἄν) = plausible
  • optative without ἄν = iterative


Further, the optative with ἄν (= possibility) also occurs.

Example Sentences: 


οὐ γὰρ οὕτως ἀπαίδευτος ἦν Σιμωνίδης, ὥστε τούτους φάναι ἐπαινεῖν, ὃς ἂν ἑκὼν μηδὲν κακὸν ποιῇ, ὡς ὄντων τινῶν οἳ ἑκόντες κακὰ ποιοῦσιν

Simonides was niet zo onopgevoed, dat hij die mensen zou lijken te prijzen, die vrijwillig geen kwaad begingen, alsof er mensen zijn die vrijwillig kwaad begaan.



ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ χρήματα Λακεδαιμονίοις, οἱ τριάκοντα πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον ἔλαβον, ἀπέδοσαν κοινῇ

En ze schonken het geld in bulk aan de Lakedaimoniërs, dat de Dertig voor de oorlog opgenomen hadden.



καὶ ἄλλα δόρατα ἔχοντες παχέα μακρά, ὅσα ἀνὴρ ἂν φέροι μόλις, τούτοις ἐπειρῶντο ἀμύνασθαι ἐκ χειρός

En met dikke, lange speren, zo groot dat een man ze nauwelijks kon dragen, probeerden ze hen in het handgemeen te verdedigen.



πρὸ τῆς Δήλου κεῖταί τι νησύδριον, ὅπερ ὑπ’ ἐνίων καλεῖται Ψαμμητίχη, ὡς Φανόδημος ἐν αʹ

Before the coast of Delus there is an island which some call Psammetiche, as does Phanodemus in his first book.