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καί as introductory conjunction: standard of comparison in the case of sameness
τοὺς δὲ βουλευτὰς ἴσα καὶ ὑπηκόους ἐποίει
‘He considered the senators to be on the same level as their subjects.’ (App. BC 1.3.22)
The conjunction καί signals a standard of comparison in the case of sameness. The case taken by the standard of comparison remains the same as the case taken by the word with which the comparison is being made.
οὐ ταὐτὰ κρώζει μὰ Δία νῦν τε καὶ τότε
By Zeus, he is not croaking the same as just then.
ὅσους ἂν τῶν πολεμίων ζωγρήσωσι, ἀπὸ τῶν ἑκατὸν ἀνδρῶν ἄνδρα θύουσι τρόπῳ οὐ τῷ αὐτῷ καὶ τὰ πρόβατα, ἀλλ’ ἑτεροίῳ
Of all the hostile troops they caught alive, one man out of every hundred was sacrificed - not in the same way as cattle, but differently.