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καί as introductory conjunction: standard of comparison in the case of sameness


τοὺς δὲ βουλευτὰς ἴσα καὶ ὑπηκόους ἐποίει

‘He considered the senators to be on the same level as their subjects.’ (App. BC 1.3.22)

The conjunction καί signals a standard of comparison in the case of sameness. The case taken by the standard of comparison remains the same as the case taken by the word with which the comparison is being made.

Example Sentences: 

οὐ ταὐτὰ κρώζει μὰ Δία νῦν τε καὶ τότε

By Zeus, he is not croaking the same as just then.

ὁμοίως ἔχει ψυχὴ πρὸς σῶμα καὶ τεχνίτης πρὸς ὄργανον καὶ δεσπότης πρὸς δοῦλον

The mind relates to the body in the same way as a craftsman to his tool and a master to his slave. ֍

ὅσους ἂν τῶν πολεμίων ζωγρήσωσι, ἀπὸ τῶν ἑκατὸν ἀνδρῶν ἄνδρα θύουσι τρόπῳ οὐ τῷ αὐτῷ καὶ τὰ πρόβατα, ἀλλ’ ἑτεροίῳ

Of all the hostile troops they caught alive, one man out of every hundred was sacrificed - not in the same way as cattle, but differently.

ὅμοια πόρνη δάκρυα καὶ ῥήτωρ ἔχει

The tears of a prostitute are like those of an orator. ֍