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ὥστε en ἐπεί with a main clause


ἐπεὶ βούλεσθε πλείον’ εἴπω;

‘For what do you think, shall I say more?’ (Aristoph. Thesm. 553)

Besides introducing subordinate clauses, the conjunctions ὥστε and ἐπεί can also introduce a main clause. In these cases these subordinating conjunctions function as coordinating conjunctions with a resultative or causal meaning, respectively (οὖν or γάρ, respectively).

Translation tips

ὥστε is best translated ‘consequently’, ‘so’ or ‘thus’, while ἐπεί is best translated ‘because’ or 'for that reason'.

Syntactic usage

The main clause is often imperative or interrogative.

Example Sentences: 

ἐπεὶ δίδαξον, ἢ μάθ’ ἐξ ἐμοῦ, τί μοι κέρδος γένοιτ’ ἄν.

Teach me therefore, or rather learn from me, what advantage there might be. [provisional translation]

ὥστ’ ἄρξετ’ ἀνθρώπων μὲν ὥσπερ παρνόπων

As a result you will rule over people as though they were locusts. ֍

ὥστε, εἰ μάλιστα πεπίστευκας σεαυτῇ καὶ τεθάρρηκας, διὰ τοῦτό σε μᾶλλον ἀγαπῶ.

And so, if you fully trust yourself and are completely self-confident, I love you all the more. ֍

ἐπεὶ σὺ δέξαι’ ἂν μᾶλλον ἀδικεῖσθαι ἢ ἀδικεῖν;

It appears that you would prefer to suffer injustice than to act unjustly yourself.