ὅπως (ὡς, ἵνα) with indicative future: argument with verbs of taking care

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ὡς δὲ καλῶς ἕξει τὰ ὑμέτερα, ἢν φίλοι γένησθε, ἐμοὶ μελήσει

Ik zal ervoor zorgen dat jullie zaken goed gaan, als jullie onze vrienden worden.


A subordinate clause in the indicative future (or subjunctive), introduced by ὅπως (ὡς is rare; ἵνα very rare), signals a goal as a subject or object with verbs of taking care, meaning 'to exert oneself,' 'to strive,' 'to see to it' or 'to commend'. Less commonly this is also the case with verbs of wanting.

Lexical usage

Verbs of taking care

ἐπιμελέομαι, ἐπιμέλομαι, μέλει μοι ‘to take care that’, εὐλαβέομαι, ὁράω, σκοπέω, φροντίζω, φυλάττομαι ‘to see to it that’, μηχανάομαι ‘to contrive that’, παρασκεύαζομαι ‘to get ready to’, ποιέω ‘to bring about that’, σκεπτέον ἐστι ‘it should be seen to that’, σπεύδω ‘to exert oneself to’ etc.

Verbs of wanting (rare)

Verbs of wanting with meanings such as ‘to ask’, ‘to order’, ‘to enjoin’, ‘to exhort’ or ‘to forbid’, which usually take an infinitive as object, sometimes take ὅπως (ὅπως μή) with the future indicative or the subjunctive.

Syntactic behaviour (with oblique optative)

The indicative future is usually retained after historic tenses. Nevertheless especially Xenophon regularly chooses the (oblique) optative future.
A subjunctive is also possible, with the same force as the future indicative. When the subjunctive (or, after historic tenses, the oblique optative) is used, we are actually dealing with final clauses. This is especially frequent in Xenophon.
The negation is usually ὅπως μή, but sometimes also μή, as in adverbial final clauses.

Historical background

This construction seems to have originated from the coordination of a first main clause with a verb of caring and a second main clause, introduced by ὅπως or ὡς, with a future indicative. The original construction, therefore, must have meant something like: ‘I see to it. Thus it will happen.’, later reinterpreted as: ‘I see to it that it will happen.’

Indicators

An object clause expressing a goal can be anticipated by τοῦτο or τούτου in the main clause. This signal word can distinguish this object clause from an adverbial final clause.

Frequential information

Frequenties van het tijdsgebruik voor de klassieke periode (Amigues, apud Duhoux):

  • indicatief futurum: 67,9 %
  • conjunctief zonder ἄν (analoog met de bijwoordelijke bijzin): 17,0 %
  • conjunctief met ἄν (verwachte modaliteit): 6,1 %
  • optatief (obliquus): 7,2 %
  • optatief (mogelijke modaliteit): 1,5 %
  • infinitief: 0,3 %
Example Sentences: 


καὶ ὅρα, ὦ Κρίτων, ταῦτα καθομολογῶν, ὅπως μὴ παρὰ δόξαν ὁμολογῇς

En zie erop toe, Kriton, dat je, als je hiermee instemt, niet tegen je mening in toegeeft. [conj. met ἄν]



ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἔργοις μέμνησο τῆς βασιλείας, καὶ φρόντιζε ὅπως μηδὲν ἀνάξιον τῆς τιμῆς ταύτης πράξεις

Onthoud in al uw daden dat u koning bent, en let erop dat u niets doet wat die erefunctie onwaardig is. [ind. fut.]



οὐ φυλάξεσθ’ ὅπως μὴ πολέμου ζητοῦντες ἀπαλλαγῆναι δεσπότην εὕρητε;

Let op dat jullie, terwijl jullie zoeken oorlog te vermijden, geen meester vinden! [conj. zonder ἄν]



ὥστε καὶ οὗτοι αὐτὸν ὥσπερ οἱ ἄριστοι “πατέρα” ἐκάλουν, ὅτι ἐπεμέλετο αὐτῶν ὅπως ἀναμφιλόγως ἀεὶ ἀνδράποδα διατελοῖεν

Bijgevolg noemden ook deze mensen, net als de edelen, hem “vader”, want hij zorgde goed voor hen, zodat ze altijd als slaven zouden willen voortleven. [opt. obl.]



ἐπιμέλονται ὡς ἂν βέλτιστοι εἶεν οἱ πολῖται

Zij zorgen ervoor dat de burgers op hun best zijn. [opt. met ἄν]



σκόπει τάδε, μὴ νῦν φυγόντες εἶθ’ ἁλῶμεν ὕστερον

Zie erop toe, dat wij niet nu vluchten om later weer gevat te worden. [conj. zonder ἄν]



ἐσκόπει ὁ Μενεκλῆς ὅπως μὴ ἔσοιτο ἄπαις

Menekles streefde ernaar niet kinderloos te blijven. [opt. zonder ἄν]



τοῦτο δεῖ παρασκευάσασθαι ὅπως ὡς κράτιστα μαχοῦμεθα

Wij moeten ons erop voorbereiden om zo goed mogelijk te strijden. [ind. fut.]



ἡμῖν πάντα ποιητέα ὡς μήποτε ἐπὶ τοῖς βαρβάροις γενώμεθα

Wij moeten alles doen om niet in de handen van de barbaren te vallen. [conj. zonder ἄν]



βασιλεὺς […] αὐτός τε θηρᾷ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἐπιμελεῖται ὅπως ἂν θηρῶσιν

De Perzische koning jaagt zelf en zorgt ervoor dat de anderen jagen. [conj. met ἄν]