ὅτι or ὡς with the moods of the main clause: indirect speech

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δῆλον ὅτι καὶ ἐσμὲν ἕνεκα τοῦ φρονῆσαί τι καὶ μαθεῖν

It is clear that we exist to think and to learn.


A subordinate clause expressing indirect speech, introduced by ὅτι or ὡς, signals a subject or object with verbs of saying (except for φημί), perception and emotion.

Syntactic behaviour (with oblique optative)

The tenses and moods are the same as those of an independent clause.

Difference between ὅτι and ὡς

The conjunction ὅτι (also ὁτιή in Homer) carries an objective nuance: the speaker has his information from someone else. As a result ὅτι sometimes has the same force as our speech marks: often the indirect speech retains not only the tense and the mood of the direct speech but also the person.
The conjunction ὡς - in contrast to ὅτι - has a subjective nuance: the speaker has ascertained the information himself.

Example Sentences: 


ἐπεὶ δὲ ταῦτα ἐκηρύχθη, ἔγνωσαν οἱ στρατιῶται ὅτι κενὸς ὁ φόβος εἴη καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες σῷοι

Toen dit afgekondigd werd, kwamen de soldaten tot het inzicht dat hun angst ongegrond was en dat de archonten veilig waren.



καὶ ὁ Θεμιστοκλῆς ἐπελθὼν τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις ἐνταῦθα δὴ φανερῶς εἶπεν ὅτι ἡ μὲν πόλις σφῶν τετείχισται ἤδη

En Themistokles stapte daar op de Spartanen toe en zei dus klaarblijkelijk dat hun stad al versterkt was.



λέγει που Ἡράκλειτος ὅτι πάντα χωρεῖ καὶ οὐδὲν μένει, καὶ ὡς δὶς εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν ποταμὸν οὐκ ἂν ἐμβαίης

Herakleitos zegt ergens dat alles voorbijgaat en niets blijft, en dat je niet tweemaal in dezelfde rivier zou kunnen stappen.



λόγῳ δὲ χρῶ τοιῷδ᾽, ὅτι ξένος μὲν εἶ | Φωκέως […] ἥκων

Use such a story as this: you are a stranger here and you have come from Phocis.