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Prepositions with the genitive: intermediary


ἔπεμψα σοι ἐπιστολήν διά τοῦ ἀρτοκόπου.

‘I have delivered this letter to you via the baker.’ (Pap. )

The preposition διά with the genitive signals an intermediary.

Lexical usage

Less frequent (or poorly attested) are ἀπό, ἐκ and ὑπό.

Example Sentences: 

… καὶ τοὺς πολεμίους, ἤν τι δύνηται, ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν βλάψαι

He was ordered to harm the enemies as well, whenever he could, via the Thracians. [provisional translation]

Λευτυχίδης ὑπὸ κήρυκος προσηγόρευε τοῖσι Ἴωσι λέγων ...

Leutykhides delivered a message to the Ionians through a herald, saying... [provisional translation]

καίτοι διὰ κηρύκων ὁ Πέρσης ἐπὶ γέρας ἐκάλει τὸν ἀπεκτονότα

The Persian king had it proclaimed by heralds that the murderer could claim a gift of honour. ֍

οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἀκούοντες ταῦτα ἀθύμως μὲν εἶχον, ἔπεμπον δὲ πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον πρέσβεις διὰ Τισσαφέρνους.

When the Athenians heard this they lost courage, and sent ambassadors to Cyrus via Tissaphernes.