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Prepositions with the accusative: standard of comparison


οὐδενὶ πλείω ἀγαθὰ ὑπάρχει πρὸς τὸ φιλοσοφῆσαι

‘Nobody possesses anything greater and better than philosophy.’ (Aristot. Protrep. B1)

The prepositions παρά and πρός with the accusative signal a standard of comparison.

Historical background

In Koine (though not in earlier or later Greek) ὑπέρ can also indicate the standard of comparison.

Example Sentences: 

χειμών τε ἐπιγενόμενος μείζων παρὰ τὴν καθεστηκυῖαν ὥρᾱν ἐπίεσε τὸ στράτευμα

A bigger storm than expected by the time of the year attacked the army. [provisional translation]

δυνατώτεροί εἰσιν ὑπὲρ αὐτόν

They are stronger than he.

εἶδον δὲ καὶ ἄλλο θηρίον τοῦ Νείλου, ὑπὲρ τὸν ἵππον τὸν ποτάμιον εἰς ἀλκὴν ἐπαινούμενον· κροκόδειλος δὲ ὄνομα ἦν αὐτῷ.

I also saw another beast of the Nile, that is praised to the heavens even more than the hippopotomus, and its name is 'crocodile'. ֍