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Prepositions with the accusative: beneficiary/malefactive


πρὸς υἱὸν ὀργὴν οὐκ ἔχει χρηστὸς πατήρ

‘A good father harbours no anger against his son.’ (Men. Mon. 451)

Prepositions with the accusative, especially εἰς and πρός, signal a beneficiary or malefactive.

Lexical usage

The preposition πρός 'against' mostly occurs with verbs of fighting. The context must determine whether the prepositional phrase with πρός is a beneficiary or a malefactive.
Less frequent are διά, ἐπί and ὑπέρ.

Example Sentences: 

ἡδέως μὲν ἔχε πρὸς ἅπαντας, χρῶ δὲ τοῖς βελτίστοις

Be friendly to all people, but associate with the best of them. ֍

ἐν τῇ ὦν παρελθούσῃ εὐεστοῖ ὁ Κροῖσος τὸ πᾶν ἐς αὐτὸν ἐπεποιήκεε

During his past prosperity Croisus had done everything for him.

γαλαῖ ποτ' εἶχον καὶ μύες πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἄσπονδον ἀεὶ πόλεμον

The weasels and the mice waged an incessant war with each other. ֍

ἀλλ' ἴωμεν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους.

But let us march up against the enemy. ֍