Genitive absolute: cause as satellite

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The genitive absolute, often accompanied by ἅτε or ὡς, signals a cause as a satellite.

Syntactic behaviour

The two particles each have their own nuance:

  • ἅτε (sometimes οἷον or οἷα, in Herodotus ὥστε) denotes an objective cause ('since');
  • ὡς denotes a subjective cause ('under the impression that, on pretext of').


ὄντος, the participle van εἰμί, may be omitted if the genitive absolute is accompanied by a particle, .

Indicators

These genitive absolutes are usually not anticipated by a signal word, unlike other causative satellites.

Example Sentences: 


καὶ οἷα δὴ ἀπιόντων πρὸς δεῖπνον καὶ συσκευαζομένων τῶν πελταστῶν, τῶν δ᾽ ἱππέων τῶν μὲν ἔτι καταβεβηκότων, τῶν δ᾽ ἀναβαινόντων, ἐπελαύνουσι

En vermits de peltasten weggingen om te dineren en zich daarop gingen voorbereiden, vermits sommige ruiters nog afgestegen en andere aan het bestijgen waren, vielen [de Thebanen] hen aan. [met οἷα]



Κῦρος δὲ ἀπορίῃσι ἐνείχετο, ἅτε χρόνου τε ἐγγινομένου συχνοῦ ἀνωτέρω τε οὐδὲν τῶν πρηγμάτων προκοπτομένων

En Kyros zat in de knoei, omdat er al geruime tijd verlopen was en geen van de zaken erop vooruitgegaan was. [met ἅτε]



βέβηκεν, ὥστε πᾶν ἐν ἡσύχῳ, πάτερ, | ἔξεστι φωνεῖν, ὡς ἐμοῦ μόνης πέλας (sc. οὔσης)

[De vreemdeling] is vertrokken, vader, zodat u rustig alles kunt zeggen, want alleen ik ben in de buurt. [met ὡς]



οἱ δ’ ἄλλοι προυθυμοῦντο μέν, ἀδύνατοι δ’ ἦσαν ἀποβῆναι τῶν τε χωρίων χαλεπότητι καὶ τῶν Ἀθηναίων μενόντων καὶ οὐδὲν ὑποχωρούντων

De rest [van de Spartanen] wilde wel, maar was niet in staat aan land te gaan door de moeilijkheid van het terrein en doordat de Atheners stand hielden en geen voetbreed weken. [zonder partikel]