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Participle: concession as agreeing satellite

Syntactical Level

πείθου γυναιξί καίπερ οὐ στέργων ὅμως.

‘Listen to us, women, even if you don't like it.’ (Aesch. Seven 712)

The participle, often preceded by περ, καίπερ (or καί or καίτοι), signals a concession as a satellite, agreeing with another constituent

Syntactic usage

When accompanied by a particle, ὤν, the participle of εἰμί, may be omitted.

Historical background

In Homer and tragic texts καί … περ is sometimes separated by the participle or by a word connected with it.


The predicate of the sentence to which a concessive participle belongs is often accompanied by adverbs such as ὅμως, εἶτα, ἔπειτα, ἔμπας or οὕτως.

Example Sentences: 

ὁ γραμμάτων ἄπειρος οὐ βλέπει βλέπων

He who is incapable of reading is blind even though he sees. ֍

ἀλλ᾽ ἀθάνατος ὢν ὦνδρες ἐφόδι᾽ οὐκ ἔχω

But, gentlemen, although I am immortal I am hungry.

πῶς οὖν, ὦ Σώκρατες, οὕτω γιγνώσκων οὐ καὶ σὺ παιδεύεις Ξανθίππην, ἀλλὰ χρῇ γυναικὶ τῶν οὐσῶν, οἶμαι δὲ καὶ τῶν γεγενημένων καὶ τῶν ἐσομένων χαλεπωτάτῃ;

Even if you believe that, Socrates, why then do you not educate Xanthippe, but tolerate the most troublesome woman who exists or, I believe, ever existed or will exist?

ἐδόκει γὰρ ἀνταγωνίζεσθαι τῷ Ἀρχίᾳ τραγῳδίαν ὑποκρινόμενος, εὐημερῶν δὲ καὶ κατέχων τὸ θέατρον ἐνδείᾳ παρασκευῆς καὶ χορηγίας κρατεῖσθαι.

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Ἀθηναίοις δὲ διηλλάγη, καίπερ οὐ μετρίως ἐνεγκοῦσι τὸ περὶ Θήβας δυστύχημα

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ἄλλοι δ’ ἐπεσήισαν, καὶ οὐκ ἀπηλαύνοντο, καίπερ μεγάλως προσπταίοντες.

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