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Participle: manner as agreeing satellite


καὶ αὐτὴ πλανᾶται καὶ ταράττεται καὶ εἰλιγγιᾷ ὥσπερ μεθύουσα;

‘And she [= the soul] floats about, is startled and dizzy as if she had drunk [when the body guides her].’ (Plat. Phaedo 79c)

The participle signals a manner as a satellite agreeing with another constituent. If accompanied by the particle ὥσπερ or ὡς ‘as, like’ the participle signals a manner by means of a comparison.

Lexical usage

The particle ὥσπερ can be replaced by ὥσπερ εἰ or ὡσπερανεί without a noteworthy difference in meaning. In Homer the same is true of ὥς τε, ὡς εἰ and ὡς εἴ τε.

Example Sentences: 

φίλοι δ’ ἅμα πάντες ἕποντο

πόλλ’ ὀλοφυρόμενοι ὡς εἰ θάνατόνδε κιόντα

All his friends together followed him [= Priamos on his way to Achilles] loudly weeping as if he was facing his death. [provisional translation]

οἳ δὴ καὶ προσῄεσαν καὶ ἠσπάζοντο ὡς ἂν καὶ συνήθεις ὑπάρχοντες

They came approached us and greeted us as though they were acquaintances (which they were not).


τί μ’ ἐσδέδορκεν ὥσπερ ἀργύρου σκοπῶν

λαμπρὸν χαρακτῆρ’;

ἃ γὰρ δεῖ μαθόντας ποιεῖν, ταῦτα ποιοῦντες μανθάνομεν

What we must learn to do, we learn by doing. ֍

ἄρχεσθαι μαθών, ἄρχειν ἐπιστήσῃ

By learning to obey, you will learn to rule. ֍