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Participle: cause as agreeing satellite

Syntactical Level

ἠσπαζόμην αὐτὼ ἅτε διὰ χρόνου ἑωρακώς

‘I greeted them both because I saw them again after a long time.’ (Plat. Euthyd. 273c)

The participle, sometimes accompanied by ἅτε or ὡς, signals a cause as a satellite agreeing with the subject.

Syntactic usage

The two particles each have their own nuance:

  • ἅτε (sometimes οἷον or οἷα, in Herodotus ὥστε) denotes an objective cause (‘since’, ‘considering that’);
  • ὡς or ὥσπερ denotes a subjective cause (‘as if’, ‘under the impression that’, ‘on pretext of).

When a form of ὤν, the participle of εἰμί, is accompanied by a particle, the participle may be omitted.
A causative participle is usually placed after the main verb.


The predicate of the sentence of which the causative clause is a part is often accompanied by satellites such as οὕτως, διὰ τοῦτο, διὰ ταῦτα or ἐκ τούτου.

Example Sentences: 

τί μαθόντες ἐμαρτυρεῖτε ὑμεῖς;

What gave you the idea to testify? ֍

ἅτε γὰρ ὢν γενναῖος ὑπό συκοφαντῶν τίλλεται

For it is because he is noble that he is plundered by sycophants.

οἷον σεσηρὼς ἐξαπατήσειν μʼ οἴεται.

Because he has bared his teeth he thinks he can deceive me.

Ἀριστοτέλην δὲ θαυμάζων ἐν ἀρχῇ καὶ ἀγαπῶν οὐχ ἧττον, ὡς αὐτὸς ἔλεγε, τοῦ πατρός, ὡς δι᾿ ἐκεῖνον μὲν ζῶν, διὰ τοῦτον δὲ καλῶς ζῶν

Aristotle he admired from the start and loved - as he himself said - like his father: it was due to the former than he lived, due to the latter that he lived well. ֍

οἷα δὲ βαρέως φέρων, ἀπίει ἐς τὴν Λιβύην τὰ πλοῖα.

Because he was seriously indignant he set sail for Libya with his ships.