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Nominative: extra-causal constituent, as exclamation (in tragedy)

Syntactical Level

οἴμοι τάλας, ὁ Ζεὺς ὅπως μή μ’ ὄψεται

‘Woe to me, wretch! Don't let Zeus see me!’ (Aristoph. Birds 1494)

In tragedy the nominative signals an exclamation in the first person after οἴμοι or ὤμοι ‘alas!’ or after ὦ.

Syntactic usage

For the second and third person the genitive is preferred over the nominative.

Example Sentences: 

οἴμοι τάλαινα, κἀμπλάκω τοῦ σοῦ μόρου;

Woe to me, miserable one, must I miss your fate? [provisional translation]

τάλας ἐγώ, ὅτι κατανένυγμαι ὅτι ἄνθρωπος ὢν καὶ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχων ἐν μέσῳ λαοῦ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχοντος ἐγὼ οἰκῶ

Woe to me! I must be silent, for I am a man with unclean lips, and I live among a people with unclean lips.