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Dative: companion as satellite

Syntactical Level

Ἀλκιβιάδης κατέπλευσεν εἰς Πάρον ναυσὶν εἴκοσιν

‘Alkibiades sailed to Paros with twenty ships.’ (Xen. Hell. 1.4.11)

The dative signals a companion as a satellite. The word in the dative is invariably an army or a part of an army (troops, ships, etc.) by which a leader is accompanied.

Syntactic usage

The dative of the military companion is used interchangeably with σύν + dative.

Example Sentences: 

καὶ τὰ μὲν νικώντων, τὰ δὲ νικωμένων, Ἀλκιβιάδης ἐπεισπλεῖ δυοῖν δεούσαις εἴκοσι ναυσίν

Sometimes they were victorious, sometimes they were defeated, when Alcibiades sailed into [the Hellespont] with eighteen ships.

κατεφαίνετο πάντα αὐτόθεν ὥστε οὐκ ἂν ἔλαθεν αὐτὸν ὁρμώμενος ὁ Κλέων τῷ στρατῷ.

Everything was visible from that location, so that he would not fail to observe Cleon advancing with his army. ֍

καὶ πεντήκοντα μὲν ναυσί, στρατιώταις δὲ μυρίοις καὶ τετρακισχιλίοις ἐπιβαλοῦντες αὐτοῖς κατελάβοντο τὰς περὶ τὴν Γεράνειαν παρόδους .

Intending to overwhelm them with fifty ships and fourteen thousand soldiers they took control of the passes around mount Geraneia.

Ἱπποκράτης μὲν οὖν καὶ Θράσυλλος ἐμάχοντο ἑκάτερος τοῖς ὁπλίταις χρόνον πολύν.

Thus Hippocrates and Thrasyllus gave battle for a long time, each with his own hoplites.