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Dative: companion as satellite
Ἀλκιβιάδης κατέπλευσεν εἰς Πάρον ναυσὶν εἴκοσιν
‘Alkibiades sailed to Paros with twenty ships.’ (Xen. Hell. 1.4.11)
The dative signals a companion as a satellite. The word in the dative is invariably an army or a part of an army (troops, ships, etc.) by which a leader is accompanied.
The dative of the military companion is used interchangeably with σύν + dative.
καὶ τὰ μὲν νικώντων, τὰ δὲ νικωμένων, Ἀλκιβιάδης ἐπεισπλεῖ δυοῖν δεούσαις εἴκοσι ναυσίν
Sometimes they were victorious, sometimes they were defeated, when Alcibiades sailed into [the Hellespont] with eighteen ships.
καὶ πεντήκοντα μὲν ναυσί, στρατιώταις δὲ μυρίοις καὶ τετρακισχιλίοις ἐπιβαλοῦντες αὐτοῖς κατελάβοντο τὰς περὶ τὴν Γεράνειαν παρόδους .
Intending to overwhelm them with fifty ships and fourteen thousand soldiers they took control of the passes around mount Geraneia.
Ἱπποκράτης μὲν οὖν καὶ Θράσυλλος ἐμάχοντο ἑκάτερος τοῖς ὁπλίταις χρόνον πολύν.
Thus Hippocrates and Thrasyllus gave battle for a long time, each with his own hoplites.