Genitive: adjective complement without specific semantic role

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ὁ γὰρ τὸ σπέρμα παρασχών, οὗτος τών φύντων αἴτιος

For he who supplies the seed is responsible for the harvest.


The genitive signals a complement with an adjective, virtually independent of semantic roles:

  • with compound adjectives composed of a prefix and a noun;

  • (in poetry) with various other adjectives.

Lexical usage

This use of the genitive corresponds to the neutral use of the accusative (and the genitive of totality) in objects, that of the nominative in subjects, and that of the genitive in modifiers.
The following are some common semantic roles:

Companion (~ dative)

In expressions of proximity, companionship and reciprocity.

Reference (~ accusative, dative)

In expressions of perception, emotion or mental activity: ἀγύμναστος ‘untrained (in)’, ἀήθης ‘not used (to)’, ἀπαίδευτος ‘uninstructed (in)’, ἄπειρος ‘inexperienced (in)’, ἔμπειρος ‘experienced (in)’, ὀψιμαθής ‘late in learning’, τρίβων ‘practised (in)’, τυφλός ‘blind (to)’, φιλομαθής ‘curious (about)’ etc.

Possessor

In expressions of possession and rule: ἀκρατής ‘not having power (over)’, ἴδιος ‘peculiar (to)’, κύριος ‘having power (over)’ etc.

Place (~ dative)

Especially in poetry with ἐναντίος ‘opposite’ and a few expressions of proximity or approach.

Cause (~ dative)

This involves adjectives expressing a (positive or negative) emotion or responsibility.

Value or price

ἄξιος ‘worthy’, ἀντάξιος ‘worth as much’, ἀνάξιος ‘unworthy’, ἀξιόχρεως ‘sufficient’ etc.

Example Sentences: 


ὁ σοφιστὴς ... σοφός τε καὶ ἄξιος πολλῶν χρημάτων

De sofist is wijs en veel geld waard.



Γωβρύας δ’ ἡμῖν ἀρχέτω αὐτῶν καὶ ἡγείσθω αὐτοῖς· καὶ γὰρ ὁδῶν ἔμπειρος καὶ τἆλλα ἱκανός

Laat Gobryas in onze plaats aan hun leiding staan en hun gids zijn; want hij kent de wegen en is ook op andere vlakken geschikt.



ἡ ἀνθρωπεία φύσις, εἰωθυῖα καὶ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ἀδικεῖν, ἀσμένη ἐδήλωσεν ἀκρατὴς μὲν ὀργῆς οὖσα

De menselijke natuur, gewend als hij is om tegen de wetten in onrecht te begaan, toonde met plezier dat ze haar woede niet beheerste.



ὦ φέγγος ὕπνου διάδοχον

Licht dat volgt op de slaap!



εὐδαίμων γάρ μοι ἁνὴρ ἐφαίνετο, ὦ Ἐχέκρατες, καὶ τοῦ τρόπου καὶ τῶν λόγων

Want hij lijkt mij een gelukkig man, Echekrates, zowel met zijn levenswijze als met zijn woorden.



ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν ἑτέρην [ζεῦξιν ἐζεύγνυσαν] τεσσερεσκαίδεκα καὶ τριηκοσίας, τοῦ μὲν Πόντου ἐπικαρσίας τοῦ δὲ Ἑλλησπόντου κατὰ ῥόον

En onder de andere [pontonbrug bonden ze] driehonderdveertien [schepen aan elkaar], in een hoek tegenover de Pontos en met de stroom van de Hellespont mee.