Dative: reference as satellite

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The dative signals a reference as a satellite.

Syntactic behaviour

The difference with instrument, place, standard of comparison and cause is not large, as the following examples show: ἰσχύω τῷ σώματι ‘to be strong in body’, γιγνώσκω τινὰ τῷ σχήματι ‘to know someone by sight’, κρίνω τινὰ τοῖς λόγοις ‘to judge someone by his words’, ὑπερβάλλω τινὰ ἀρετῇ ‘to surpass someone in virtue’, διαφέρω ἀνδρείᾳ ‘to differ in courage’.

Historical background

The dative becomes very frequent in this construction in the Koine of the Roman period (Jannaris 1897:330).

Example Sentences: 


καὶ γὰρ ὁρᾶν στυγνὸς ἦν καὶ τῇ φωνῇ τραχύς

Want hij was afschuwelijk om te zien en had een ruwe stem.



οὐ μόνον δ' ἐκ πλειόνων ἀνθρώπων ἐστὶν ἡ πόλις, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐξ εἴδει διαφερόντων

De stad bestaat niet alleen uit talrijke mensen, maar ook uit mensen die verschillen van aard.



εἰς δὲ τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ Θεοῦ οὐ διεκρίθη τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ, ἀλλὰ ἐνεδυναμώθη τῇ πίστει, δοὺς δόξαν τῷ Θεῷ

En hij twijfelde niet door ongeloof aan de belofte van God, maar werd gesterkt door zijn geloof, door eer aan God te geven.