Genitive: cause as object

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ζηλῶ σε τοῦ νοῦ τῆς δὲ δειλίᾱς στυγῶ

Ik benijd jou om je wijsheid, maar ik haat jou om je lafheid.


The genitive signals a cause as a second object with verbs expressing:

  • positive or negative emotions;

  • a dispute;

  • a payment (with the thing paid for in the genitive).

Lexical usage

Positive emotions (admiration, envy, praise)

Some examples:
TBX ἐλεέω (τινά) τινός to have pity (on someone) because of
εὐδαιμονίζω (τινά) τινός to call (someone) happy because of
ζηλόω (τινά) τινός to envy (someone) because of
ἥδομαί τινος to be delighted because of
θαυμάζω (τινά) τινός to admire (someone) because of
μακαρίζω (τινά) τινός to call (someone) happy because of
οἰκτίρω (τινά) τινός to have pity (on someone) because of
συγγιγνώσκω (τινί) τινός to forgive (someone) because of

Negative emotions (anger, sadness, hatred, disapproval, worry)

Some examples:
TBX μέμφομαί (τινί) τινός to reproach (someone) because of
μισέω (τινά) τινός to hate (someone) because of
ὀνειδίζω (τινί) τινός to reproach (someone) because of
ὀργίζομαί (τινί) τινός to be angry (with someone) because of
στυγέω (τινά) τινός to hate (someone) because of
φθονέω (τινά) τινός to envy (someone) because of
χαλεπαίνω (τινί) τινός to be angry (with someone) because of

Disputes (complaint, charge, sentence)

Some examples:
TBX αἱρέω (τινά) τινός to convince (someone) of
γράφομαί (τινά) ἀσεβείας to accuse (someone) in writing of impiety
αἰτιάομαι, διώκω (τινά) τινός to accuse (someone) of
εἰσάγω (τινά) κλοπῆς to accuse (someone) of theft
κρίνω (τινά) τινός to sentence (someone) for
ὀφλισκάνω φόνου to be condemned for murder
τιμωρέομαί (τινά) τινός to punish (someone) for
ὑπάγω (τινά) τινός to accuse (someone) of
φεύγω τινός vervolgd worden wegens

Syntactic behaviour

With some vebrs (ἄλγω, ἄχθομαι, στένω, φθονέω enz.) the genitive is used interchangeably with the dative (sometimes with ἐπί).
The person experiencing the (negative or positive) emotion is often put in the accusative or dative. The victim of a dispute is often put in the accusative.

Example Sentences: 


οὔ ταρ ὅ γ’ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται οὐδ’ ἑκατόμβης, | ἀλλ’ ἕνεκ’ ἀρητῆρος ὃν ἠτίμησ’ Ἀγαμέμνων

Hij is niet ontevreden om een gebed noch om een hecatombe, maar om de priester die Agamemnon oneer aangedaan heeft.



οὐδένα γοῦν τῆς συνουσίᾱς ἀργύριον πρᾱ́ττῃ

Jij laat tenminste niemand geld betalen voor je gezelschap.



διώκω μὲν κακηγορίᾱς τῇ δ᾽ αὐτῇ ψήφῳ φόνου φεύγω

Ik klaag iemand aan voor smaad en word op hetzelfde proces vervolgd voor moord.



τίς γὰρ οὐκ ἂν ἀγάσαιτο τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἐκείνων τῆς ἀρετῆς;

For who would not admire those men for their virtue?