A subordinate clause in the subjunctive without ἄν, introduced by ἵνα, ὅπως, or ὡς (or ὄφρα, in epic and lyric), marks a goal as a satellite.
Syntactic behaviour (with oblique optative)
The negation is ἵνα μή, ὅπως μή, (ὄφρα μή), ὡς μή, or simply μή.
If the main clause is in a past tense, the (oblique) optative is common. In narrative passages, the subjunctive is often retained after an aorist. Particularly in Xenophon, an optative can be found after ἵνα, ὡς, or ὡς ἄν, even if the main predicate is in a present tense. This (potential) optative indicates that the achievement of the goal is problematic.
The final clause tends to undergo modal attraction:
• in some cases, it is attracted to the optative in the main clause;
• in other cases, it is attracted to the secondary indicative (always without ἄν) from an epistemically or deontically counterfactual main clause, thus indicating an unattainable goal.
A final clause, introduced by a relative conjunction indicating origin, like ὅπως, ὄφρα or ὡς (though never negated), is sometimes put in the subjunctive with ἄν. The particle ἄν gives the subordinate clause a conditional nuance. Homer would have written ὥς κε or ὡς ἄν rather than simply ὡς. The construction ὅπως ἄν appears from Aeschylus onwards and outnumbers the simple ὅπως in Aristophanes, Plato (and Attic inscriptions).
The future indicative occurs in poetry with the same force as the subjunctive, particularly after ὅπως.
Greek final clauses in the subjunctive are derived from the juxtaposition of a declarative and a volitive (main) clause. The use of the subjunctive goes back to this volitive notion.
A final clause is often anticipated by a prepositional or postpositional phrase with final meaning in the main clause. Frequent indicators are τούτου ἕνεκα (Ionic: εἵνεκεν), διὰ τοῦτο or ἐπὶ τοῦτο 'for this reason'.
In classical prose, ἵνα is by far the most common final conjunction: for each clause introduced by ὅπως there are four introduced by ἵνα. The usage of the tragedians and Aristophanes deviates from the norm in that they prefer ὡς over ἵνα.
Although the subjunctive remains the most frequent mood (54,9%), the oblique optative occurs very often in Amigues' corpus of classical Attic (36,4%). The future indicative (4,7%) and the potential optative (2,6%) are much less common.
δημοσίᾳ γὰρ ἵνα ταφῶμεν, | φήσομεν πρὸς τοὺς στρατηγοὺς | μαχομένω τοῖς πολεμίοισιν | ἀποθανεῖν ἐν Ὀρνεαῖς
For, so that we may be buried at the public expense, we will tell the generals that we died fighting the enemy at Orneae.